Advertisement

Frequency and Types of Foods Advertised on Saturday Morning and Weekday Afternoon English- and Spanish-Language American Television Programs

      Abstract

      Objective

      To describe food advertised on networks serving children and youth, and to compare ads on English-language networks with ads on Spanish networks.

      Design

      Analysis of television food advertisements appearing on Saturday morning and weekday afternoons in 2005-2006. A random sample of 1,130 advertisements appearing on 12 networks catering to Spanish-language, children, youth, Black youth, and general audiences were analyzed.

      Main Outcome Measures

      Each advertisement was coded for the nature of the item promoted, the selling propositions used, and any nutritional claims made.

      Analysis

      Cross-tabulations using Fisher's exact test (P < .05 criterion).

      Results

      One-fifth of commercials were for food. Food ads were especially prevalent on Saturday programs and children's networks. Seventy percent of food ads were for items high in sugar or fat. More than one fourth of food advertisements were for fast-food restaurants, which were especially common on MTV and Spanish-language networks. Ads for fruits and vegetables were rare (1.7%). One nutrition-related public service announcement was found for every 63 food ads.

      Conclusions and Implications

      Food advertisements continue to promote less-healthful items. Until marketing of high calorie, low-nutrient food to children is restricted, education and media literacy remain the best strategies for mitigating advertising effects.

      Key Words

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access

      SNEB Member Login

      SNEB Members, full access to the journal is a member benefit. Login via the SNEB Website to access all journal content and features.

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Caroli M.
        • Argentieri L.
        • Cardon M.
        • Masi A.
        Role of television in childhood obesity prevention.
        Int J Obes. 2004; 28: S104-S108
        • Ogden C.L.
        • Carroll M.D.
        • Curtin L.R.
        • McDowell M.A.
        • Tabak C.J.
        • Flegal K.M.
        Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States, 1999-2004.
        JAMA. 2006; 295: 1549-1555
        • Janssen I.
        • Katzmarzyk P.T.
        • Boyce W.F.
        • et al.
        Comparison of overweight and obesity prevalence in school-aged youth from 34 countries and their relationship with physical activity and dietary patterns.
        Obes Rev. 2005; 6: 123-132
        • Befort C.
        • Kaur H.
        • Nollen N.
        • et al.
        Fruit, vegetable, and fat intake among non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white adolescents: associations with home availability and food consumption settings.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2006; 106: 367-373
        • Campbell K.J.
        • Crawford D.A.
        • Ball K.
        Family food environment and dietary behaviors likely to promote fatness in 5-6 year old children.
        Int J Obes. 2006; 30: 1272-1280
        • Giammattei J.
        • Blix G.
        • Marshak H.H.
        • Wollitzer A.O.
        • Pettitt D.J.
        Television viewing and soft drink consumption.
        Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2003; 157: 882-886
        • Vereecken C.A.
        • Todd J.
        • Roberts C.
        • Mulvihill C.
        • Maes L.
        Television viewing behavior and associations with food habits in different countries.
        Public Health Nutr. 2006; 9: 244-250
        • Stroebele N.
        • de Castro J.M.
        Television viewing is associated with an increase in meal frequency in humans.
        Appetite. 2004; 42: 111-113
        • French S.A.
        • Story M.
        • Neumark-Sztainer D.
        • Fulkerson J.A.
        • Hannan P.
        Fast food restaurant use among adolescents: associations with nutrient intake, food choices and behavioral and psychosocial variables.
        Int J Obes. 2001; 25: 1823-1833
        • Boynton-Jarrett R.
        • Thomas T.N.
        • Peterson K.E.
        • Wiecha J.
        • Sobol A.M.
        • Gortmaker S.L.
        Impact of television viewing patterns on fruit and vegetable consumption among adolescents.
        Pediatrics. 2003; 112: 1321-1326
        • Story M.
        • Faulkner P.
        The prime time diet: a content analysis of eating behavior and food messages in television program content and commercials.
        Am J Public Health. 1990; 80: 738-740
        • Larson M.S.
        Health-related messages embedded in prime-time television entertainment.
        Health Commun. 1991; 3: 175-184
        • Bell R.A.
        • Berger C.R.
        • Cassady D.
        • Townsend M.S.
        Portrayals of food practices and exercise behavior in popular American films.
        J Nutr Educ Behav. 2005; 37: 27-32
        • John D.R.
        Consumer socialization of children: a retrospective look at twenty-five years of research.
        J Consum Res. 1999; 26: 183-213
        • Chamberlain L.J.
        • Wang Y.
        • Robinson T.N.
        Does children's screen time predict requests for advertised products? cross-sectional and prospective analyses.
        Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2006; 160: 363-368
        • Arnas Y.A.
        The effects of television food advertisement on children's food purchasing requests.
        Pediatr Int. 2006; 48: 138-145
        • Powell L.M.
        • Szczypka B.A.
        • Chaloupka F.J.
        Exposure to food advertising on television among US children.
        Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2007; 161: 553-560
        • Gallo A.E.
        Food advertising in the United States.
        in: Frazao E. America's Eating Habits: Changes and Consequences. US Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC1999: 173-180
        • Byrd-Bredbenner C.
        • Grasso D.
        Health, medicine, and food messages in television commercials during 1992-1998.
        J Sch Health. 2000; 70: 61-65
        • Story M.
        • French S.
        Food advertising and marketing directed at children and adolescents in the US.
        Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2004; 1: 3
        • Kotz K.
        • Story M.
        Food advertisements during children's Saturday morning television programming: are they consistent with dietary recommendations?.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 1994; 94: 1296-1300
        • Taras H.L.
        • Gage M.
        Advertised foods on children's television.
        Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1995; 149: 649-652
        • Gantz W.
        • Schwartz N.
        • Angelini J.R.
        • Rideout V.
        Food For Thought: Television Food Advertising To Children In The United States. The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, Menlo Park, Calif2007 (Available at:) (Accessed September 14, 2009)
        • Harrison K.
        • Marske A.L.
        Nutritional content of foods advertised during the television programs children watch most.
        Am J Public Health. 2005; 95: 1568-1574
        • Powell L.M.
        • Szczypka G.
        • Chaloupka F.J.
        • Braunschweig C.L.
        Nutritional content of television food advertisements seen by children and adolescents in the United States.
        Pediatrics. 2007; 120: 576-583
        • Batada A.
        • Seitz M.D.
        • Wootan M.G.
        • Story M.
        Nine out of 10 food advertisements shown during Saturday morning children's television programming are for foods high in fat, sodium, or added sugars, or low in nutrients.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2008; 108: 673-678
        • Folta S.C.
        • Goldberg J.P.
        • Economos C.
        • Bell R.
        • Meltzer R.
        Food advertising targeted at school-age children: a content analysis.
        J Nutr Educ Behav. 2006; 38: 244-248
        • Fisler J.S.
        • Warden C.H.
        Genetics of obesity in Hispanic children.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2006; 84: 473-474
        • Ariza A.J.
        • Chen E.H.
        • Binns H.J.
        • Christoffel K.K.
        Risk factors for overweight in five- to six-year-old Hispanic-American children: a pilot study.
        J Urban Health. 2004; 81: 150-161
        • Wilkinson K.T.
        Spanish language media in the United States.
        in: Albarran A. Handbook of Spanish Language Media. Routledge, New York, NY2009: 3-16
        • Ortega R.M.
        • Andres P.
        • Jimenez L.M.
        • Ortega A.
        Claims and errors in food and nutrition advertisements broadcast by two Spanish television channels.
        J Hum Nutr Diet. 1995; 8: 353-362
        • Cohen J.
        A coefficient of agreement for nominal scales.
        Educ Psychol Meas. 1960; 20: 37-46
        • Landis J.R.
        • Koch G.G.
        The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data.
        Biometrics. 1977; 33: 159-174
        • Popkin B.M.
        • Armstrong L.E.
        • Bray G.M.
        • Caballero B.
        • Frei B.
        • Willett W.C.
        A new proposed guidance system for beverage consumption in the United States.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2006; 83: 529-542
        • Ringle J.S.
        • Collins R.L.
        • Ellickson P.L.
        Time trends and demographic differences in youth exposure to alcohol advertising on television.
        J Adolesc Health. 2006; 39: 473-480
        • Tirodkar M.A.
        • Jain A.
        Food messages on African American television shows.
        Am J Public Health. 2003; 93: 439-441
        • Henderson V.R.
        • Kelly B.
        Food advertising in the age of obesity: content analysis of food advertising on general market and African-American television.
        J Nutr Educ Behav. 2005; 37: 191-196
        • Pereira M.A.
        • Kartashov A.I.
        • Ebbeling C.B.
        • et al.
        Fast-food habits, weight gain, and insulin resistance (The CARDIA Study): 15 Year Prospective Analysis.
        Lancet. 2005; 365: 4-5
        • Doak C.M.
        • Visscher T.L.
        • Renders C.M.
        • Seidell J.C.
        The prevention of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents: a review of interventions and programmes.
        Obes Rev. 2006; 7: 111-136
        • Weber K.
        • Story M.
        • Harnack L.
        Internet food marketing strategies aimed at children and adolescents: a content analysis of food and beverage brand web sites.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2006; 106: 1463-1466
        • Potter W.J.
        Media Literacy. SAGE Publications, Thousand Oaks, Calif2001
        • Evans A.E.
        • Dave J.
        • Tanner A.
        • et al.
        Changing the home nutrition environment: effects of a nutrition and media literacy pilot intervention.
        Fam Community Health. 2006; 29: 43-54