Advertisement
Report| Volume 39, ISSUE 2, SUPPLEMENT , S32-S40, March 2007

Download started.

Ok

Health Communication Campaigns and Their Impact on Behavior

  • Leslie B. Snyder
    Correspondence
    Author for correspondence: Dr. Leslie B. Snyder, PhD, Professor, Department of Communications Sciences, University of Connecticut, 850 Bolton Road, Unit 1085, Storrs, CT 06269-1085; Tel: (860) 486-2817; Fax (860) 486-5422
    Affiliations
    Department of Communications Sciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut
    Search for articles by this author

      Abstract

      The objective is to review the evidence for the effectiveness of health communication campaigns to inform future nutrition campaigns. The review drew on existing meta-analyses and other literature. The average health campaign affects the intervention community by about 5 percentage points, and nutrition campaigns for fruit and vegetable consumption, fat intake, and breastfeeding, have been slightly more successful on average than for other health topics. The factors affecting success rates are discussed. The conclusion is that nutrition campaigns that pay attention to the specific behavioral goals of the intervention, target populations, communication activities and channels, message content and presentation, and techniques for feedback and evaluation should be able to change nutrition behaviors.

      Key Words

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access

      SNEB Member Login

      SNEB Members, full access to the journal is a member benefit. Login via the SNEB Website to access all journal content and features.

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Rogers E.M.
        • Storey J.D.
        Communication campaigns.
        in: Berger C.R. Chaffee S.H. Handbook of Communication Science. Sage, Newbury Park, Calif1987: 817-846
        • Snyder L.B.
        Development communication campaigns.
        in: Gutykunst W.B. Mody B. Handbook of International and Intercultural Communication. 2nd ed. Sage, Thousand Oaks, Calif2001: 457-478
        • National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion
        Fact sheet: Actual Causes of Death in the United States. 2000 (Available at: http://www.cdc. gov/nccdphp/factsheets/death _causes2000.htm. Accessed March 26, 2004)
        • Huhman M.
        • Potter L.D.
        • Wong F.L.
        • Banspach S.W.
        • Duke J.C.
        • Heitzler C.D.
        Effects of a mass media campaign to increase physical activity among children: Year 1 results of the VERB Campaign.
        Pediatrics. 2005; 116: 277-284
        • Farrelly M.C.
        • Davis K.C.
        • Haviland M.L.
        • Messeri P.
        • Healton C.G.
        Evidence of a dose-response relationship between “truth” antismoking ads and youth smoking prevalence.
        Am J Public Health. 2005; 95: 425-431
        • Hornik R.
        • Maklan D.
        • Cadell D.
        • et al.
        Evaluation of the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign: Fifth Semi-Annual Report of Findings. Westat, Rockville, Md2003
        • Kiwanuka-Tondo J.
        • Snyder L.B.
        The influence of organizational characteristics and campaign design elements on communication campaign quality: Evidence from 91 Ugandan AIDS Campaigns.
        J Health Commun. 2002; 7: 59-77
        • Dearing J.W.
        • Rogers E.M.
        • Meyer G.
        • et al.
        Social marketing and diffusion-based strategies for communication with unique populations: HIV prevention in San Francisco.
        J Health Commun. 1996; 1: 343-363
        • Snyder L.B.
        How effective are mediated health campaigns?.
        in: Rice R. Atkin C. Public Information Campaigns. 3rd ed. Sage, Thousand Oaks, Calif2001: 181-190
        • Ammerman A.
        • Lindquist C.
        • Hersey J.
        • et al.
        Efficacy of interventions to modify dietary behavior related to cancer risk. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; Research Triangle Institute-University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Evidence-based Practice Center, Rockville, Md2001 (February, Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. 25; Contract No. 290-97-0011; AHRQ Publication No. 01-E029. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?rid=hstat1.chapter.35668. Accessed March 30, 2006)
        • Bertrand J.T.
        • O’Reilly K.
        • Denison J.
        • Anhang R.
        • Sweat M.
        Systematic review of the effectiveness of mass communication programs to change HIV/AIDS-related behaviors in developing countries.
        Health Educ Res. 2006; : 21
        • Derzon J.H.
        • Lipsey M.W.
        A meta-analysis of the effectiveness of mass-communication for changing substance-use knowledge, attitudes, and behavior.
        in: Crano W.D. Burgoon M. Mass Media and Drug Prevention: Classic and Contemporary Theories and Research. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahway, NJ2002: 231-258
        • Grilli R.
        • Ramsay C.
        • Minozzi S.
        Mass media interventions: effects on health services utilization.
        Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2002; (Art. No.: CD000389; DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000389)
        • McArthur D.B.
        Heart healthy eating behaviors of children following a school-based intervention: a meta-analysis.
        Issues Compr Pediatr Nurs. 1998; 21: 35-48
        • Pomerleau J.
        • Lock K.
        • Knai C.
        • McKee M.
        Interventions designed to increase adult fruit and vegetable intake can be effective: a systematic review of the literature.
        J Nutr. 2005; 135: 2486-2495
        • Snyder L.B.
        • Badiane L.
        • Kalnova S.
        • Diop-Sidibé N.
        Meta-Analysis of Family Planning Campaigns Advised by the Center for Communication Programs at Johns Hopkins University Compared to Campaigns Conducted and Advised by Other Organizations; Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and U.S. Agency for International Development. 2003
        • Snyder L.B.
        • Hamilton M.A.
        • Mitchell E.W.
        • Kiwanuka-Tondo J.
        • Fleming-Milici F.
        • Proctor D.
        A meta-analysis of the effect of mediated health communication campaigns on behavior change in the United States.
        J Health Commun. 2004; 9: 71-96
        • Snyder L.B.
        • Hamilton M.A.
        Meta-analysis of U.S. health campaign effects on behavior: Emphasize enforcement, exposure, and new information, and beware the secular trend.
        in: Hornik R. Public Health Communication: Evidence for Behavior Change. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ2002: 357-383
      1. Snyder LB, Lapierre MA, Maloney EK. Using mass media to improve nutrition: A meta-analytic examination of campaigns and interventions. Paper presented at: 134th Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association; November 4-8, 2006; Boston, Mass.

      2. Snyder LB. Meta-analyses of mediated health campaigns. To appear in: Preiss RW, Allen M, et al., eds. Mass Media Research: Advances through Meta-analysis. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

        • Regel B.
        • Wootan M.G.
        • Booth-Butterfield S.
        Using mass media to promote healthy eating: A community-based demonstration project.
        Prev Med. 1999; 29: 414-421
        • McGuire W.
        The theoretical foundation of campaigns.
        in: Rice R.E. Paisley W.J. Public Communication Campaigns. Sage, Beverly Hills, Calif1981: 41-70
        • Andreasen A.
        Marketing Social Change: Changing Behavior to Promote Health, Social Development, and the Environment. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, Calif1995
        • Manoff R.
        Social Marketing. Praeger, New York1985
        • Shingi P.
        • Mody B.
        The communication effects gap: a field experiment in TV and agricultural ignorance in India.
        in: Rogers E.M. Communication and Development: Critical Perspectives. Sage, Beverly Hills, Calif1976
        • Hornik R.C.
        Development Communication: Information, Agriculture, and Nutrition in the Third World. Longman Publishing Group, New York1988
        • Fisher J.D.
        • Fisher W.A.
        The information-motivation-behavioral skills model of AIDS risk behavior change: Empirical support and applications.
        in: Oskamp S. Thompson S. Understanding and Preventing HIV Risk Behavior: Safer Sex and Drug Use. Sage, Thousand Oaks, Calif1996: 100-127
        • Kotler P.
        • Roberto N.
        • Lee N.
        Social Marketing: Improving the Quality of Life. 2nd ed. Sage, Thousand Oaks, Calif2002
        • Atkin C.K.
        • Freimuth V.S.
        Formative evaluation research in campaign design.
        in: Rice R.E. Atkin C.K. Public Communication Campaigns. 3rd ed. Sage, Thousand Oaks, Calif2001: 125-145
        • Lefebvre R.C.
        • Flora J.A.
        Social marketing and public health intervention.
        Health Educ Q. 1981; 15: 299-315
        • Griffiths M.
        • Zeitlin M.
        • Manoff R.K.
        • Cook T.M.
        Kader Evaluation: Nutrition Communication and Behavior Change Component, Indonesian Nutrition Development Program. Manoff International, New York1983
        • Smith W.A.
        Communications and Social Marketing for Health. Academy for Educational Development, Washington, DC1986 (Occasional Paper No. 15)
        • Grunig J.
        Publics, audiences, and market segments: segmentation principles for campaigns.
        in: Salmon C. Information Campaigns: Balancing Social Values and Social Change. Sage, Newbury Park, Calif1989: 199-228
        • Institute of Medicine
        Speaking of Health: Assessing Health Communication Strategies for Diverse Population. National Academies Press, Washington, DC2002
        • Snyder L.B.
        Evidence of the Effectiveness of Communication Interventions Across Diverse Populations. 2000
        • Snyder L.B.
        • Rouse R.
        AIDS messages and risk: Targeting the urban audience.
        AIDS Education and Prevention: An International Journal. 1992; 4: 143-159
        • Slater M.D.
        Choosing audience segmentation strategies and methods for health communication.
        in: Maibach E.W. Parrott R.L. Designing Health Messages: Approaches from Communication Theory and Public Health Practice. Sage, Thousand Oaks, Calif1995: 186-198
        • Slater M.D.
        Integrating application of media effects, persuasion and behavior change theories to communication campaigns: A stages of change framework.
        Health Commun. 1999; 11: 335-354
      3. National Cancer Institute. Eat 5 to 9 a Day for Better Health Program Evaluation. Available at: http://5aday.gov/research/program.html. Accessed July 10, 2005.

      4. Kreuter M. Farrell D. Olevich L. Brennan L. Tailoring Health Messages: Customizing Communication with Computer Technology. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ2000: 43-51
        • Weinreich N.K.
        Hands-On Social Marketing: A Step-by-Step Guide. Sage, Thousand Oaks, Calif1999
        • Wallack L.
        • Dorfman L.
        • Jernigan D.
        • Themba M.
        Media Advocacy and Public Health: Power for Prevention. Sage, Newbury Park, Calif1993
        • Brown V.
        • Neumann C.
        • Sander-Smith M.
        • Snyder L.B.
        Mid-term Evaluation: Wellstart International’s Expanded Promotion of Breastfeeding Program. US Agency for International Development, Division of Nutrition & Maternal Health, Office of Health & Nutrition, Washington, DC1994
        • Shimp T.
        Advertising, Promotion, and Supplemental Aspects of Integrated Marketing Communications. 6th ed. Harcourt, Orlando, Fl2000
      5. Babor T, Ahmed K, McRee B. Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT): Toward a Public Health Approach to the Management of Substance Abuse. Manuscript.

        • Noar S.M.
        A 10-year retrospective of research in health mass media campaigns: Where do we go from here?.
        J Health Commun. 2006; 11: 21-42
        • Fishbein M.
        • Ajzen I.
        Belief, Attitude, Intention, and Behavior. Addison-Wesley, Menlo Park, Calif1975
        • Bandura A.
        Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ1986
        • Prochaska J.O.
        • DiClemente C.C.
        The Transtheoretical Approach: Crossing the Traditional Boundaries of Therapy. 2nd ed. Dow Jones/Irwin, Homewood, Ill1986
        • Stokols D.
        Translating social ecological theory into guidelines for community health promotion.
        Am J Health Promot. 1996; 10: 282-298
        • Maiman L.
        • Becker M.H.
        The health belief model: Origins and correlates in psychological theory.
        Health Educ Monogr. 1974; 2: 387-408
        • Pechmann C.
        A comparison of health communication models: risk learning versus stereotype priming.
        Media Psychology. 2001; 3: 189-210
        • Affenito S.G.
        • Thompson D.R.
        • Barton B.A.
        • et al.
        Breakfast consumption by African-American and white adolescent girls correlates positively with calcium and fiber intake and negatively with body mass index.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2005; 105: 938-945
        • Lang A.
        Involuntary attention and physiological arousal evoked by structural features & emotional content in TV commercials.
        Communic Res. 1990; 17: 275-299
        • Batra R.
        • Ray M.L.
        Affective response mediating acceptance of advertising.
        J Consum Res. 1986; 13: 234-249
        • Monahan J.L.
        Thinking positively: Using positive affect when designing health messages.
        in: Maibach E.W. Parrott R.L. Designing Health Messages: Approaches from Communication Theory and Public Health Practice. Sage, Thousand Oaks, Calif1995: 81-98
        • Campbell D.T.
        • Stanley J.C.
        Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs for Research. Rand McNally and Company, Chicago1963
        • Valente T.W.
        Evaluating communication campaigns.
        in: Rice R.E. Atkin C.K. Public Communication Campaigns. 3rd ed. Sage, Thousand Oaks, Calif2001: 105-124
        • Snyder L.B.
        • Hamilton M.A.
        When evaluation design affects results: meta-analysis of evaluations of mediated health campaigns. Annual Conference of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, New Orleans, La1999
      6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey Data. Atlanta, Ga: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 1984-2005. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/brfss/index.htm.

      7. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Atlanta, Ga). Youth Risk Behavior Survey and Middle School Youth Behavior Survey; 1992-2005. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/yrbs/index.htm.

      8. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data. Hyattsville, Md: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 1999-2006. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes.htm.

        • Brashers D.E.
        • Goldsmith D.J.
        • Hsieh E.
        Information seeking and avoiding in health contexts.
        Hum Commun Res. 2002; 28: 258-271
        • Shim M.
        • Kelly B.
        • Hornik R.
        Cancer scanning and seeking behavior is associated with knowledge, lifestyle choices, and screening behavior. 2005 (Presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association. New York; May)