To evaluate, through study- and individual-level analyses of data from 7 studies, the effectiveness of school-based nutrition interventions on child fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption.
To find original studies on school-based nutrition interventions, the authors searched electronic databases from 1990 to 2002. First authors of the 13 eligible studies were contacted to request their data. Data from 7 studies were received for inclusion in this pooled analysis.
8156 children were matched from pretest to posttest. Participants were primarily elementary school-aged (75.5%) and white (66%), and 50.4% were males.
Main Outcome Measures
Net FV difference and net FV relative change (%).
Data were analyzed at both the study and individual levels. A fitted multivariable fixed-effects model was used to analyze the role of potential covariates on FV intake. Statistical significance was set at α = .05.
At the individual level, the net difference in FV consumption was 0.45 (95% CI 0.33-0.59) servings; the net relative change was 19% (95% CI 0.15-0.23) servings.
Conclusions and Implications
School-based nutrition interventions produced a moderate increase in FV intake among children. These results may have implications for chronic disease prevention efforts, including cardiovascular disease and cancer.
To read this article in full you will need to make a payment
Purchase one-time access:Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
SNEB Member LoginSNEB Members, full access to the journal is a member benefit. Login via the SNEB Website to access all journal content and features.
Subscribe:Subscribe to Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
Already an online subscriber? Sign in
Register: Create an account
Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect
- Diet and the Cancer Process.in: Food, Nutrition and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective. American Institute for Cancer Research, Washington, DC1997
- Plant-based foods and prevention of cardiovascular disease: an overview.Am J Clin Nutr. 2003; 78: 544S-551S
- Epidemiologic evidence of the protective effect of fruit and vegetables on cancer risk.Am J Clin Nutr. 2003; 78: 559S-569S
- Vegetables, fruit, and cancer prevention: a review.J Am Diet Assoc. 1996; 96: 1027-1039
- Overview of the health benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption for the dietetics professional: selected literature.J Am Diet Assoc. 2000; 100: 1511-1521
- Overweight, obesity, and mortality from cancer in a prospectively studied cohort of U.S. adults.N Engl J Med. 2003; 348: 1625-1638
- Vainio H. Bianchini F. IARC Handbook of Cancer Prevention, Volume 6: Weight Control and Physical Activity. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Lyon, France2002
- Fruit, vegetables, and antioxidants in childhood and risk of adult cancer: the Boyd Orr cohort.J Epidemiol Community Health. 2003; 57: 218-225
- Cancer epidemiology in the last century and the next decade.Nature. 2001; 411: 390-395
- Guidelines for school health programs to promote lifelong healthy eating.MMWR. 1996; 45: 1-41
- The School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study.Am J Clin Nutr. 1995; 61: 173S-177S
- School Health Profiles: Surveillance for Characteristics of Health Programs among Secondary Schools (Profiles 2002). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Ga2004
- Efficacy of Interventions to Modify Dietary Behavior Related to Cancer Risk. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, Md2000 (Evidence Report/Technology Assessment #25)
- The National 5 A Day for Better Health Program: a large-scale nutrition intervention.J Public Health Manag Pract. 1996; 2: 27-35
- Outcomes from a school-based nutrition education program alternating special resource teachers and classroom teachers.J Sch Health. 1999; 69: 403-408
- Outcomes from a school-based nutrition education program using resource teachers and cross-disciplinary models.J Nutr Educ. 1998; 30: 268-280
- The California Children’s 5 a Day Power Play! Campaign: evaluation of a large-scale social marketing initiative.Fam Commun Health. 1998; 21: 46-64
- Outcomes of a high school program to increase fruit and vegetable consumption: Gimme 5—A fresh nutrition concept for students.J Sch Health. 1998; 68: 248-253
- Effects of the child and adolescent trial for cardiovascular health (CATCH) on fruit and vegetable intake.J Nutr Educ. 1998; 30: 354-360
- Changing fruit and vegetable consumption among children: the 5-a-Day Power Plus program in St. Paul, Minnesota.Am J Public Health. 1998; 88: 603-609
- Increasing the fruit and vegetable consumption of fourth-graders: results from the high 5 project.Prev Med. 2000; 30: 309-319
- Counseling to promote a healthy diet in adults: a summary of the evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force.Am J Prev Med. 2003; 24: 75-92
- Statistical methods for examining heterogeneity and combining results from several studies in meta-analysis.in: Egger E. Davey-Smith G. Altman D.G. Systematic Reviews in Health Care: Meta-analysis in Context. BMJ Publishing Group, London2001: 285-312
- Traditional reviews, meta-analysis and pooled analyses in epidemiology.Int J Epidemiol. 1999; 28: 1-9
- The efficacy of behavioral interventions to modify dietary fat and fruit and vegetable intake: a review of the evidence.Prev Med. 2002; 35: 25-41
- Three-year maintenance of improved diet and physical activity: the CATCH cohort.Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1999; 153: 695-704
- Structure of dietary measurement error: results of the OPEN biomarker study.Am J Epidemiol. 2003; 158: 14-21
- Oxford University Press, New York1998 Nutritional Epidemiology. 2nd ed.
- Invited commentary: OPEN questions.Am J Epidemiol. 2003; 158: 22-24
- A comparison of a food frequency questionnaire with a 24-hour recall for use in an epidemiological cohort study: results from the biomarker-based Observing Protein and Energy Nutrition (OPEN) study.Int J Epidemiol. 2003; 32: 1054-1062
- Evaluation of dietary assessment instruments in adolescents.Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2003; 6: 557-562
- Development, validation and utilisation of food-frequency questionnaires — a review.Public Health Nutr. 2002; 5: 567-587
- Quantitative synthesis in systematic reviews.Ann Int Med. 1997; 127: 820-826
The National Cancer Institute provided financial support as part of the Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program.
Published by Elsevier Inc.