Advertisement

Optimizing Nutrition Education in WIC: Findings From Focus Groups With Arizona Clients and Staff

Published:February 13, 2016DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneb.2016.01.002

      Abstract

      Objective

      To understand staff and clients' experiences with delivering and receiving nutrition education in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC).

      Methods

      Focus groups involving WIC staff, clients, and former clients in Arizona. Client and staff perceptions of WIC nutrition education, preferences, and suggestions for improvement were examined. Transcripts were analyzed using a deductive thematic approach to identify emerging themes.

      Results

      Findings from 10 focus groups with 25 WIC staff and 29 clients suggested that existing materials were time-consuming and unresponsive to client needs, and additional resources were needed to engage children while parents were in session; new delivery formats for nutrition education, including videos and interactive demonstrations focused on child-friendly preparations of WIC foods, were preferred.

      Conclusions and Implications

      Collaboration among existing nutrition education programs, including Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program–Education, Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program, community gardens, and Head Start, can complement and enhance WIC nutrition educations in this region.

      Key Words

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic and Personal

      SNEB Member Login

      SNEB Members, full access to the journal is a member benefit. Login via the SNEB Website to access all journal content and features.
      Join SNEB today online

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

      1. WIC needs assessment. Arizona Department of Health Services Bureau of Nutrition and Physical Activity Research and Development. http://www.azdhs.com/azwic/documents/local_agencies/reports/wic-needs-assessment-02-22-13.pdf. Accessed March 15, 2015.

        • Ogden C.L.
        • Carroll M.D.
        • Kit B.K.
        • Flegal K.M.
        Prevalence of childhood and adult obesity in the United States, 2011-2012.
        JAMA. 2014; 311: 806-814
      2. California WIC association. WIC nutrition education supports behavior change. http://www.phfewic.org/projects/files/NWA_NEFPI_Brief2010.FINAL.pdf. Accessed January 10, 2015.

        • Chang M.W.
        • Nitzke S.
        • Brown R.
        Design and outcomes of a mothers in motion behavioral intervention pilot study.
        J Nutr Educ Behav. 2010; 42: S11-S21
        • Bensley R.J.
        • Brusk J.J.
        • Anderson J.V.
        • Mercer N.
        • Rivas J.
        • Broadbent L.N.
        wichealth.org: impact of a stages of change-based Internet nutrition education program.
        J Nutr Educ Behav. 2006; 38: 222-229
        • Deehy K.
        • Hoger F.S.
        • Kallio J.
        • et al.
        Participant-centered education: building a new WIC nutrition education model.
        J Nutr Educ Behav. 2010; 42: S39-S46
        • Isbell M.G.
        • Seth J.G.
        • Atwood R.D.
        • Ray T.C.
        A client-centered nutrition education model: lessons learned from Texas WIC.
        J Nutr Educ Behav. 2014; 46: 54-61
        • Lockner D.W.
        • Kibbe D.
        • Marley S.C.
        • Trowbridge F.
        Get healthy together: a program to improve counseling for childhood obesity in community-based WIC clinics.
        J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2014; 25: 771-786
        • Langenberg P.
        • Ballesteros M.
        • Feldman R.
        • Damron D.
        • Anliker J.
        • Havas S.
        Psychosocial factors and intervention-associated changes in those factors as correlates of change in fruit and vegetable consumption in the Maryland WIC 5 a day promotion program.
        Ann Behav Med. 2000; 22: 307-315
        • Abusabha R.
        • Peacock J.
        • Achterberg C.
        How to make nutrition education more meaningful through facilitated group discussions.
        JAMA. 1999; 99: 72-76
        • Dzewaltowski D.A.
        • Estabrooks P.A.
        • Glasgow R.E.
        The future of physical activity behavior change research: what is needed to improve translation of research into health promotion practice?.
        Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2004; 32: 57-63
        • Krueger R.A.
        • Casey M.A.
        Focus Groups: A Practical Guide for Applied Research.
        3rd ed. Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA2000
      3. Wimmer RD, Dominick JR. Mass Media Research: An Introduction. 9th ed. Brief guide for conducting focus groups. http://www.rogerwimmer.com/mmr9e/mmrfocusgroups.htm. Accessed June 16, 2015.

        • Fereday J.
        • Muir-Cochrane E.
        Demonstrating rigor using thematic analysis: a hybrid approach of inductive and deductive coding and theme development.
        Int J Qual Meth. 2006; 5: 80-92
        • Krueger R.A.
        • Casey M.A.
        Focus Groups: A Practical Guide for Applied Research.
        4th ed. Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA2009
        • Colchamiro R.
        • Ghiringhelli K.
        • Hause J.
        Touching hearts, touching minds: using emotion-based messaging to promote healthful behavior in the Massachusetts WIC program.
        J Nutr Educ Behav. 2010; 42: S59-S65
        • Nestor B.
        • McKenzie J.
        • Hasan N.
        • AbuSabha R.
        • Achterberg C.
        Client satisfaction with the nutrition education component of the California WIC program.
        J Nutr Educ. 2001; 33: 83-94
      4. Horrigan J. The numbers behind the broadband “homework gap.” Pew Research Center’s Internet and American Life. http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2015/04/20/the-numbers-behind-the-broadband-homework-gap/. Accessed June 16, 2015.

        • Agenor M.
        • Callahan K.P.
        • Henchy G.
        Making WIC Work for Multicultural Communities: Best Practices in Outreach and Nutrition Education. Food and Research Outreach Center (FRAC).
        2009
        • Sigman-Grant M.
        • Rye A.
        • Loesch-Griffin D.
        • Mitchell D.
        How to strengthen and enhance WIC nutrition education.
        J Nutr Educ Behav. 2008; 40: 317-321
      5. Illinois Nutrition Education Programs. All About EFNEP. http://web.extension.illinois.edu/INEP/efnep.cfm. Accessed March 15, 2015.