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Evaluation of Worksite Wellness Nutrition and Physical Activity Interventions and Their Subsequent Impact on Participants' Body Compositions: A Systematic Review

      Background (Background, Rationale, Prior Research, and/or Theory): Worksite wellness programs have shifted from preventing injuries to reducing or preventing employee obesity. These programs include both nutrition education and physical activity, yet results are inconsistent in reducing weight.
      Objective: To evaluate worksite wellness nutrition and physical activity interventions and their subsequent impact on participants' body composition.
      Study Design, Setting, Participants, Intervention: Articles, between 01–1980 and 11–2017, were extracted from Pub- Med, CINAHL, SCOPUS, and PsycINFO databases using the key words, “worksite wellness nutrition and physical activity interventions/programs” and “weight”. A 9-point inclusion and an 8-point exclusion criteria were established. Two researchers independently extracted articles, applied inclusion/exclusion criteria to titles and abstracts and assessed the quality of articles using the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Evidence Analysis Manual.
      Outcome Measures and Analysis: Participants' body compositions included weight, BMI, fat free mass, and waist circumference.
      Results: A total of 962 articles were identified, of which 51 articles were fully examined after the inclusion/exclusion criteria and 23 articles were included in the study. Eleven studies resulted in significant decreases in body composition (P < .05), 6 studies resulted in body composition decreases without statistical significance (P > .05) and 6 studies did not show any reductions in body composition. Interventions ranged from daily, weekly, or monthly educational sessions via traditional (e.g. face-to-face) or online settings and were led by registered dietitians or nutritionists and exercise physiologists. Interventions that resulted in larger reductions of body composition, regardless of time, held educational sessions in a traditional setting and incorporated a self-driving theory such as motivational interviewing, self-determination, or health belief.
      Conclusions and Implications: The evidence supports that worksite wellness nutrition and physical activity interventions that include traditional education settings with expert educators and a self-driving theory will aid in reducing participants' body compositions. Effectively this may aid corporate dietitians in establishing interventions that improve employees' overall health.
      Funding: None.

      Supplementary Data

      The following is the supplementary data to this article: