Breakfast is essential to provide the energy and nutrients needed by young children throughout the day. Grain dishes form the base of meals, and rice or bread are mainly eaten as grain dishes for breakfast in Japan. However, little research exists on the relationship between dietary patterns and kinds of grain dishes.
This study examines the difference in dietary patterns based on the kinds of grain dishes consumed for breakfast among Japanese preschoolers.
Study Design, Setting, Participants
A sample of 121 preschoolers aged 3-6 years and their mothers participated in this cross-sectional study. The mothers completed the children's dietary record and took pictures of meals for 5 days.
The 5-day breakfasts were divided according to the kinds of grain dishes—rice or bread. Here, the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top was considered using chi-square test to examine the difference between rice-centered and bread-centered diets.
Data for 602 meals were collected. Of these, 197 meals (32.7%) were rice-centered diet; 303 meals (50.3%), bread-centered diet; and 102 meals (16.9%), cereal-centered diet and no grain dishes. Out of 500 meals (6.8%) consisted of 5 dishes (grain, vegetables, protein, fruits, and dairy products); 18.0%, 4 dishes; 34.0%, 3 dishes; 30.8%, 2 dishes; and 10.4%, only grain dish. There were no significant differences in the number of dishes between rice-centered and bread-centered diets (P = .19). However, rice-centered diet had a significantly higher percentage of diets with protein dish and without fruits and dairy products than that of bread-centered diet (P < .001).
There was no difference in the number of dishes between rice-centered and bread-centered diets for breakfast among Japanese preschoolers. However, there were differences in the types of dishes.