Research Article| Volume 52, ISSUE 11, P1008-1017, November 2020

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Psychometric Analyses of the Eating and Food Literacy Behaviors Questionnaire with University Students



      This study developed and validated a questionnaire to measure young adults’ perceived food literacy and behaviors toward food and created an explanatory model.




      Large southeastern US university.


      A total of 1,896 students, aged 18–30 years, were recruited. Data from 1,813 were analyzed.

      Variables Measured

      Health and nutrition, taste, food preparation, planning and decision-making, and convenience.


      Exploratory factor analysis, test-retest reliability, confirmatory factor analysis, and structural equation modeling were performed.


      Exploratory factor analysis returned 5 factors with acceptable internal structure. Test-retest reliability coefficients ranged from 0.63 to 0.92. Confirmatory factor analysis suggested that a 5-factor model was an appropriate fit for the data (χ2 = 588.05; degrees of freedom = 142; root mean square error of approximation = 0.06; comparative fit index = 0.98; Tucker-Lewis Index = 0.97; standardized root mean square residual = 0.05). Structural equation modeling revealed relationships from health and nutrition to food preparation (0.25, P < 0.001), planning and/or decision-making (0.57, P < 0.001), taste (−0.14, P < 0.001), and convenience (−0.31, P < 0.001). The structural equation model demonstrated adequate fit (adjusted goodness of fit = 0.91; comparative fit index = 0.93; non-normed fit index = 0.91; root mean square error of approximation = 0.06; and standardized root mean square residual = 0.07) and a significant chi-square test (χ2 = 628.92; degrees of freedom = 171, P < 0.001).

      Conclusions and Implications

      Young adults consider food literacy-related factors and behavioral concerns when making food choices.

      Key Words

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