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Probiotics and Prebiotics in Foods: Challenges, Innovations, and Advances.

      Prebiotics and probiotics have grown in popularity over the past 2 decades despite being introduced as biotherapeutics as early as the turn of the 20th century.
      • Martín R
      • Langella P.
      Emerging health concepts in the probiotics field: streamlining the definitions.
      Today these substances can be found as naturally occurring in whole foods such as fruits, legumes, nuts, and seeds, but also in various popular manufactured food items, including fermented foods, supplements, yogurts, juices, and fortified granola and chocolate bars. The International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics defined probiotics as nonpathogenic “live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host.”
      • Hill C
      • Guarner F
      • Reid G
      • et al.
      Expert consensus document. The International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics consensus statement on the scope and appropriate use of the term probiotic.
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      References

        • Martín R
        • Langella P.
        Emerging health concepts in the probiotics field: streamlining the definitions.
        Front Microbiol. 2019; 10: 1047
        • Hill C
        • Guarner F
        • Reid G
        • et al.
        Expert consensus document. The International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics consensus statement on the scope and appropriate use of the term probiotic.
        Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014; 11: 506-514
        • Gibson GR
        • Hutkins R
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        • et al.
        Expert consensus document: the international scientific association for probiotics and prebiotics (ISAPP) consensus statement on the definition and scope of prebiotics.
        Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017; 14: 491-502
        • Vinderola G
        • Burns P.
        • Da Cruz AG
        Chapter 1, the biotics family.
        in: Ranadheera CS Nazzaro F Mortazavian A Probiotics and Prebiotics in Foods: Challenges Innovations and Advances. Academic Press, 2021
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        • Dhir R.
        Probiotics: reiterating what they are and what they are not.
        Front Microbiol. 2019; 10: 424