Questionnaire Development Research Methods| Volume 53, ISSUE 12, P1081-1089, December 2021

Download started.


Development of a 24-Hour Movement Behavior Questionnaire for Youth: Process and Reliability Testing

Published:October 21, 2021DOI:



      To develop and evaluate the reliability of a 24-hour movement behavior questionnaire for physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep for youth in South Korea.


      Mixed-methods study using literature review, expert panels, pilot tests, and test-retest reliability.


      Seoul and Gyeongg-do, South Korea.


      A convenience sample of middle and high school students for a pilot test (n = 120) and reliability testing (n = 147).

      Main Outcome Measures

      The reliability of a 24-hour movement behavior questionnaire.


      Cohen's kappa, Spearman, and intraclass correlation coefficients for test-retest reliability testing.


      The questionnaire consisted of 19 questions in 5 categories: general information, sleep and nap, active transportation-related activity, school life, and free-time activities. The 24-hour movement behavior questionnaire achieved moderate reliability for all sleep, physical activity, and sedentary (r = 0.79, 0.61, 0.56). The amount of sleep, physical activity, and sedentary behavior indicated moderate-to-good rest-retest reliability, with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from 0.54 to 0.79 (P < 0.01).

      Conclusions and Implications

      The 24-hour movement behavior questionnaire was reliable for measuring sleep, physical activity, and sedentary behavior in Korean adolescents aged 13–17 years. The development of this questionnaire could facilitate more accurate and useful measurements of adolescent's activities and lifestyles in South Korea.

      Key Words

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access

      SNEB Member Login

      SNEB Members, full access to the journal is a member benefit. Login via the SNEB Website to access all journal content and features.


      Subscribe to Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Pedisic Z.
        Measurement issues and poor adjustments for physical activity and sleep undermine sedentary behaviour research—the focus should shift to the balance between sleep, sedentary behaviour, standing and activity.
        Kinesiology. 2014; 46: 135-146
        • Chastin SF
        • Palarea-Albaladejo J
        • Dontje ML
        • Skelton DA.
        Combined effects of time spent in physical activity, sedentary behaviors and sleep on obesity and cardio-metabolic health markers: a novel compositional data analysis approach.
        PLoS One. 2015; 10e0139984
        • Carson V
        • Hunter S
        • Kuzik N
        • et al.
        Systematic review of sedentary behaviour and health indicators in school-aged children and youth: an update.
        Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2016; 41: S240-S265
        • Chaput JP
        • Gray CE
        • Poitras VJ
        • et al.
        Systematic review of the relationships between sleep duration and health indicators in school-aged children and youth.
        Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2016; 41: S266-S282
        • Poitras VJ
        • Gray CE
        • Borghese MM
        • et al.
        Systematic review of the relationships between objectively measured physical activity and health indicators in school-aged children and youth.
        Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2016; 41: S197-S239
        • Saunders TJ
        • Gray CE
        • Poitras VJ
        • et al.
        Combinations of physical activity, sedentary behaviour and sleep: relationships with health indicators in school-aged children and youth.
        Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2016; 41: S283-S293
        • Tremblay MS
        • Carson V
        • Chaput JP.
        Introduction to the Canadian 24-hour movement guidelines for children and youth: an integration of physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and sleep.
        Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2016; 41: iii-iiv
        • Sirard JR
        • Pate RR.
        Physical activity assessment in children and adolescents.
        Sports Med. 2001; 31: 439-454
        • Cain KL
        • Sallis JF
        • Conway TL
        • Van Dyck D
        • Calhoon L.
        Using accelerometers in youth physical activity studies: a review of methods.
        J Phys Act Health. 2013; 10: 437-450
        • Strain T
        • Wijndaele K
        • Dempsey PC
        • Sharp SJ
        • Pearce M
        • Jeon J
        • Lindsay T
        • Wareham N
        • Brage S
        Wearable-device-measured physical activity and future health risk.
        Nat Med. 2020; 26: 1385-1391
        • Migueles JH
        • Cadenas-Sanchez C
        • Tudor-Locke C
        • et al.
        Comparability of published cut-points for the assessment of physical activity: implications for data harmonization.
        Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2019; 29: 566-574
        • Welk GJ.
        Physical Activity Assessments for Health-Related Research.
        Human Kinetics, 2002
        • Chinapaw MJ
        • Mokkink LB
        • van Poppel MN
        • van Mechelen W
        • Terwee CB.
        Physical activity questionnaires for youth: a systematic review of measurement properties.
        Sports Med. 2010; 40: 539-563
        • Tremblay MS
        • Salome A
        • Joel D
        • et al.
        Sedentary Behavior Research Network. (SBRN) - Terminology Consensus Project process and outcome.
        Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2017; 14: 1-17
        • Oh JW
        • Lee EY
        • Lim J
        • et al.
        Results from South Korea's 2018 Report Card on physical activity for children and youth.
        J Exerc Sci Fit. 2019; 17: 26-33
        • Yoo MS.
        Results of Analysis of Quality of Life Indicators for Children and Adolescents.
        2019 (KOSTAT Statistics Plus; 2019.)
        • Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology
        Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth. CSEP;.
        • Lee EY
        • Yi K
        • Walker GJ
        • Spence JC.
        Preferred leisure type, value orientations, and psychological well-being among East Asian youth.
        Leis Sci. 2017; 39: 355-375
        • Gehlbach H
        • Artino AR Jr
        • Durning S.
        AM last page: survey development guidance for medical education researchers.
        Acad Med. 2010; 85: 925
        • Jackson CJ
        • Furnham A.
        Designing and Analysing Questionnaires and Surveys: A Manual for Health Professionals and Administrators.
        Whurr Publishers, 2000
        • Moher D
        • Liberati A
        • Tetzlaff J
        • Altman DG
        • the PRISMA Group
        Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses: the PRISMA statement.
        PLoS Med. 2009; 6e1000097
        • Terwee CB
        • Mokkink LB
        • van Poppel MN
        • Chinapaw MJ
        • van Mechelen W
        • de Vet HC.
        Qualitative attributes and measurement properties of physical activity questionnaires: a checklist.
        Sports Med. 2010; 40: 525-537
        • Artino Jr, AR
        • Rochelle JS
        • Dezee KJ
        • Gehlbach H
        Developing questionnaires for educational research: AMEE Guide No. 87.
        Med Teach. 2014; 36: 463-474
        • Hinkle DE
        • Wiersma W
        • Jurs SG.
        Applied Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences.
        Houghton Mifflin College Division;. 2003;
        • Koo TK
        • Li MY.
        A guideline of selecting and reporting intraclass correlation coefficients for reliability research.
        J Chiropr Med. 2016; 15: 155-163
        • Kim D.
        Characteristics and capabilities of self-report instruments in measuring physical activity used for Korean children and adolescents - a systematic review.
        Korean J Meas Eval Phys Educ Sport Sci. 2009; 11: 53-68
        • Lee M.
        A systematic review of validity and reliability evidences of sedentary behavior measures.
        Korean J Meas Eval Phys Educ Sport Sci. 2014; 16: 87-102
        • Yang CK
        • Kim JK
        • Patel SR
        • Lee JH.
        Age-related changes in sleep/wake patterns among Korean teenagers.
        Pediatrics. 2005; 115: 250-256
        • Nascimento-Ferreira MV
        • De Moraes ACF
        • Toazza-Oliveira PV
        • et al.
        Reliability and validity of a questionnaire for physical activity assessment in South American children and adolescents: the SAYCARE study.
        Obesity. 2018; 26: S23-S30
        • Carvalho HB
        • Moreno LA
        • Silva AM
        • et al.
        Design and objectives of the South American youth/child cardiovascular and environmental (SAYCARE) study.
        Obesity. 2018; 26: S5-S13
      1. Hardy LL, Mihrshahi S, Drayton BA, Bauman A. NSW Schools Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey (SPANS) 2015: Full Report. NSW Department of Health; 2016.

        • Booth ML
        • Denney-Wilson E
        • Okely AD
        • Hardy LL.
        Methods of the NSW schools physical activity and nutrition survey (SPANS).
        J Sci Med Sport. 2005; 8: 284-293
        • Meltzer LJ
        • Avis KT
        • Biggs S
        • Reynolds AC
        • Crabtree VM
        • Bevans KB.
        The Children's Report of Sleep Patterns (CRSP): a self-report measure of sleep for school-aged children.
        J Clin Sleep Med. 2013; 9: 235-245
        • Cabanas-Sánchez V
        • Martínez-Gómez D
        • Esteban-Cornejo I
        • Castro-Piñero J
        • Conde-Caveda J
        • Veiga ÓL
        Reliability and validity of the Youth Leisure-Time Sedentary Behavior Questionnaire (YLSBQ).
        J Sci Med Sport. 2018; 21: 69-74
        • Guimarães R
        • Silva M
        • Legnanl E
        • Mazzerdo O
        • Campos W.
        Reproducibility of Adolescent Sedentary Activity Questionnaire (ASAQ) in Brazilian Adolescents.
        RBCDH. 2013;
        • Aggio D
        • Fairclough S
        • Knowles Z
        • Graves L.
        Validity and reliability of a modified English version of the physical activity questionnaire for adolescents.
        Arch Public Health. 2016; 74: 3
        • Moore JB
        • Yin Z
        • Hanes J
        • Duda JL.
        Measuring enjoyment of physical activity in children: validation of the physical activity enjoyment scale.
        J Appl Sport Psychol. 2009; 21: S116-S129
        • Scott JJ
        • Morgan PJ
        • Plotnikoff RC
        • Lubans DR.
        Reliability and validity of a single-item physical activity measure for adolescents.
        J Paediatr Child Health. 2015; 51: 787-793
        • Dishman RK
        • Heath GW
        • Lee IM.
        Physical Activity Epidemiology.
        2nd ed. Human Kinetics, 2012
        • Morrow JR
        • Mood DP
        • Disch JG
        • Kang M.
        Measurement and Evaluation in Human Performance.
        5th ed. Human Kinetics, 2015

      Linked Article

      • Targeted Questionnaire Development
        Journal of Nutrition Education and BehaviorVol. 53Issue 12
        • Preview
          Last year we implemented a new article type category for Questionnaire Development. These can be found under the Collections tab on the website. The Development and Validation of a Military Eating Survey includes 43 eating habits and 90 mediating behavior items.1 The 14 habit scales include hunger, satiety, food craving, meal pattern, restraint, diet rigidity, emotional eating, fast/slow eating rate, environmental triggers, situational eating, supplement use, and food choice; the 8 mediating factor scales include body composition strategy, perceived stress, food access, sleep habits, military fitness, physical activity, military body image, and nutrition knowledge.
        • Full-Text
        • PDF