The 2020-2025 Dietary Guidelines for Americans highlights healthy eating patterns and puts emphasis on culturally appropriate food groups and traditions. However, whole fruit consumption in the US falls well below these recommendations and there is little research published that examines mango consumption within US dietary patterns.
To compare nutrient intakes, total fruit intakes (all fruits, including mango), diet quality, and weight-related outcomes in children mango consumers relative to non-consumers.
Study Design, Setting, Participants
Daily dietary intake data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2018 were used to conduct a secondary analysis.
Least square means for nutrient and fruit intakes, diet quality and health outcomes for healthy children (9-13 y, n = 3,716; 14-18 y, N = 3,321) mango consumers were compared to non-consumers. Completed and reliable 24-hour recall data were considered in the study.
Both younger and older children consuming mangoes had significantly greater daily intakes of dietary fiber, magnesium, potassium, folate DFE, vitamins A, B12, C, and E, and significantly lower intakes of added sugar, and sodium, compared with non-consumers of similar ages. Younger and older children mango consumers also demonstrated a significantly better overall diet quality when compared with non-consumers, respectively (9-13 y: 55.1 ± 2.8 vs. 46.4 ± 0.4, P < 0.003; 14-18 y: 55.8±3.0 vs. 45.6 ± 0.3, P = 0.001). Similarly, both age groups of mango consuming children had significantly greater daily intake of total fruit (9-13 y: 2.3±0.2 vs. 1.0 ± 0.04, P < 0.0001; 14-18 y: 2.7 ± 0.5 vs. 0.9 ± 0.04, P = 0.001). Waist circumferences in mango consumers were 6.5 ± 2.7 cm smaller in older children relative to non-consumers. Older male mango consumers, but not females, had lower BMI z-scores compared to non-consumers.
Daily mango consumption in children is associated with significantly greater total fruit intake relative to non-consumers. Indeed, daily mango consumption in children was associated with more than double the total fruit intake compared to non-consumers. Further, mango consumption in children is associated with improved nutrient intakes and a greater diet quality score.
National Mango Board