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P100 Current Field Use of Reflection Spectroscopy Based Skin Carotenoid Assessment in Children: A Systematic Review

      Background

      Determining skin-carotenoid scores (SCS) via reflectance spectroscopy (RS) has become a widely acceptable method to quantify children's fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC) in research and public health screening due to its ease of use, portability, and non-invasiveness. However, to date, no studies have systematically evaluated the field use of RS instruments in children.

      Objectives

      Objectives are to summarize research use of RS-based SCS assessment in children (1-10-year-old) and its reliability and validity as a proxy for children's FVC and to identify areas and opportunities for future research.

      Study Design, Settings, Participants

      The research team performed a comprehensive literature search in eight databases in June 2021 yielding 4467 citations. Abstracts of peer-reviewed studies assessing SCS using RS instruments in children were identified. Studies were reviewed independently by two reviewers to determine eligibility for inclusion.

      Results

      Eight articles (Intervention = 1; Cross-sectional=7) were included. Veggie Meter® was used in seven studies as an RS instrument. FVC was measured using 24-hour dietary recall, Pictorial Liking tool, Self-reported School Physical Activity and Nutrition (SPAN) survey, parent reported availability and accessibility survey, and electronic food photos. SCS was associated with total FVC; but not with orange and green vegetable consumption, fruit consumption, and liking. Age, gender, ethnicity, income, and seasonal variation were significant covariates. No study reported validity and reliability of RS-based SCS in children compared to other standardized carotenoid measures. Additionally, adherence to recommended RS-based SCS protocol for field use in children has not been fully reported in included studies.

      Conclusions

      While the RS has been established as a valid and reliable instrument to measure SCS in adults, present review found small correlation of SCS with total FVC and null relationship when considering only orange and green vegetables or fruit consumption. Therefore, further validation will be beneficial to evaluate reliability and validity of RS-based SCS as a proxy measure to assess children's FVC.

      Funding

      Buffett Early Childhood Institute Graduate Scholars Program

      SUPPLEMENTARY DATA

      Supplementary data related to this article can be found at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneb.2022.04.140.

      Appendix. SUPPLEMENTARY DATA