Advertisement
Research Article| Volume 54, ISSUE 9, P808-817, September 2022

Emotion Regulation Moderates the Associations of Food Parenting and Adolescent Emotional Eating

      Abstract

      Objective

      To explore parental feeding practices and eating behavior as predictors of the child's emotional eating (EE) and child's emotion regulation (ER) as a potential moderator.

      Design

      Parental eating behavior (emotional, external, and restrained eating), 9 parental feeding practices (restriction, food as reward, food as ER, monitoring, healthy modeling, healthy environment, child control, and child involvement), ER, and EE were analyzed cross-sectionally and 5 parental practices longitudinally (subsample, n = 115).

      Setting

      Belgium.

      Participants

      Two hundred eighteen adolescents (aged 13.7 ± 1.77 years) and parent dyads.

      Main Outcome Measures

      Child's EE.

      Analysis

      Linear regression and moderation (cross-sectional) and linear mixed models (longitudinal). Models adjusted for multiple testing with a false discovery rate of 10% (Benjamini-Hochberg), age, sex, body mass index, socioeconomic status, and cohort.

      Results

      Cross-sectionally but not longitudinally, there was a positive association between predictors restriction and monitoring with the outcome child's EE (β = 0.19, P = 0.006; β = 0.17, P = 0.01, respectively). Restrained eating of the parent was negatively associated with the child's EE (β = −0.22, P = 0.003). The child's maladaptive ER significantly moderated the associations of 5 feeding practices and parental EE with the child's EE.

      Conclusions and Implications

      Parents continue to play a role in the eating behavior of their adolescent offspring, not only through their feeding practices (restrictive parenting was most detrimental) but also by displaying restrained eating (beneficial). A child's ER appears as an important moderator of the established associations; however, more research is needed to better understand these observations.

      Key Words

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access

      SNEB Member Login

      SNEB Members, full access to the journal is a member benefit. Login via the SNEB Website to access all journal content and features.

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      REFERENCES

        • van Strien T
        • Cebolla A
        • Etchemendy E
        • et al.
        Emotional eating and food intake after sadness and joy.
        Appetite. 2013; 66: 20-25
        • Frayn M
        • Knäuper B.
        Emotional eating and weight in adults: a review.
        Curr Psychol. 2018; 37: 924-933
        • Nguyen-Michel ST
        • Unger JB
        • Spruijt-Metz D.
        Dietary correlates of emotional eating in adolescence.
        Appetite. 2007; 49: 494-499
        • Sawyer SM
        • Afifi RA
        • Bearinger LH
        • et al.
        Adolescence: a foundation for future health.
        Lancet. 2012; 379: 1630-1640
        • Crone EA
        • Dahl RE.
        Understanding adolescence as a period of social-affective engagement and goal flexibility.
        Nat Rev Neurosci. 2012; 13: 636-650
        • van Strien T.
        Causes of emotional eating and matched treatment of obesity.
        Curr Diab Rep. 2018; 18: 35
        • Nguyen-Rodriguez ST
        • Unger JB
        • Spruijt-Metz D.
        Psychological determinants of emotional eating in adolescence.
        Eat Disord. 2009; 17: 211-224
        • Herle M
        • Fildes A
        • Llewellyn CH.
        Emotional eating is learned not inherited in children, regardless of obesity risk.
        Pediatr Obes. 2018; 13: 628-631
        • Pinard CA
        • Yaroch AL
        • Hart MH
        • Serrano EL
        • McFerren MM
        • Estabrooks PA.
        Measures of the home environment related to childhood obesity: a systematic review.
        Public Health Nutr. 2012; 15: 97-109
        • Vaughn AE
        • Tabak RG
        • Bryant MJ
        • Ward DS.
        Measuring parent food practices: a systematic review of existing measures and examination of instruments.
        Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2013; 10: 61
        • Ventura AK
        • Birch LL.
        Does parenting affect children's eating and weight status?.
        Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2008; 5: 15
        • Vaughn AE
        • Ward DS
        • Fisher JO
        • et al.
        Fundamental constructs in food parenting practices: a content map to guide future research.
        Nutr Rev. 2016; 74: 98-117
        • Disantis KI
        • Hodges EA
        • Johnson SL
        • Fisher JO.
        The role of responsive feeding in overweight during infancy and toddlerhood: a systematic review.
        Int J Obes (Lond). 2011; 35: 480-492
        • Miller N
        • Mallan KM
        • Byrne R
        • de Jersey S
        • Jansen E
        • Daniels LA.
        Non-responsive feeding practices mediate the relationship between maternal and child obesogenic eating behaviours.
        Appetite. 2020; 151104648
        • Balantekin KN
        • Anzman-Frasca S
        • Francis LA
        • Ventura AK
        • Fisher JO
        • Johnson SL.
        Positive parenting approaches and their association with child eating and weight: a narrative review from infancy to adolescence.
        Pediatr Obes. 2020; 15: e12722
        • Larsen JK
        • Hermans RCJ
        • Sleddens EFC
        • Engels RCME
        • Fisher JO
        • Kremers SP.
        How parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices affect children's dietary behavior. Interacting sources of influence?.
        Appetite. 2015; 89: 246-257
        • van Strien T
        • Frijters JE
        • Bergers GP
        • Defares PB.
        The Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) for assessment of restrained, emotional, and external eating behavior.
        Int J Eat Disord. 1986; 5: 295-315
        • Kröller K
        • Jahnke D
        • Warschburger P.
        Are maternal weight, eating and feeding practices associated with emotional eating in childhood?.
        Appetite. 2013; 65: 25-30
        • Snoek HM
        • Engels RCME
        • Janssens JMAM
        • van Strien T
        Parental behaviour and adolescents’ emotional eating.
        Appetite. 2007; 49: 223-230
        • Elfhag K
        • Tynelius P
        • Rasmussen F.
        Family links of eating behaviour in normal weight and overweight children.
        Int J Pediatr Obes. 2010; 5: 491-500
        • Mcphie S
        • Skouteris H
        • Daniels L
        • Jansen E.
        Maternal correlates of maternal child feeding practices: a systematic review.
        Matern Child Nutr. 2014; 10: 18-43
        • McRae K
        • Gross JJ.
        Emotion regulation.
        Emotion. 2020; 20: 1-9
        • Aparicio E
        • Canals J
        • Arija V
        • De Henauw S
        • Michels N.
        The role of emotion regulation in childhood obesity: implications for prevention and treatment.
        Nutr Res Rev. 2016; 29: 17-29
        • Aldao A
        • Sheppes G
        • Gross JJ.
        Emotion regulation flexibility.
        Cogn Ther Res. 2015; 39: 263-278
        • Sominsky L
        • Spencer SJ.
        Eating behavior and stress: a pathway to obesity.
        Front Psychol. 2014; 5: 434
        • Miller AL
        • Gearhardt AN
        • Retzloff L
        • Sturza J
        • Kaciroti N
        • Lumeng JC.
        Early childhood stress and child age predict longitudinal increases in obesogenic eating among low-income children.
        Acad Pediatr. 2018; 18: 685-691
        • Evers C
        • Marijn Stok F
        • de Ridder DT
        Feeding your feelings: emotion regulation strategies and emotional eating.
        Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 2010; 36: 792-804
        • Morris AS
        • Silk JS
        • Steinberg L
        • Myers SS
        • Robinson LR.
        The role of the family context in the development of emotion regulation.
        Soc Dev. 2007; 16: 361-388
        • Rodenburg G
        • Kremers SPJ
        • Oenema A
        • Van De Mheen D.
        Associations of parental feeding styles with child snacking behaviour and weight in the context of general parenting.
        Public Health Nutr. 2014; 17: 960-969
        • Gerards SMPL
        • Kremers SPJ.
        The role of food parenting skills and the home food environment in children's weight gain and obesity.
        Curr Obes Rep. 2015; 4: 30-36
        • Michels N
        • Vanaelst B
        • Vyncke K
        • et al.
        Children's body composition and stress - the ChiBS study: aims, design, methods, population and participation characteristics.
        Arch Public Health. 2012; 70: 17
        • Van Beveren ML
        • Mezulis A
        • Wante L
        • Braet C.
        Joint contributions of negative emotionality, positive emotionality, and effortful control on depressive symptoms in youth.
        J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2019; 48: 131-142
        • De Decker A
        • Verbeken S
        • Sioen I
        • et al.
        Palatable food consumption in children: interplay between (food) reward motivation and the home food environment.
        Eur J Pediatr. 2017; 176: 465-474
        • Cronbach LJ.
        Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests.
        Psychometrika. 1951; 16: 297-334
        • Birch LL
        • Fisher JO
        • Grimm-Thomas K
        • Markey CN
        • Sawyer R
        • Johnson SL.
        Confirmatory factor analysis of the Child Feeding Questionnaire: A measure of parental attitudes, beliefs and practices about child feeding and obesity proneness.
        Appetite. 2001; 36: 201-210
        • Musher-Eizenman D
        • Holub S.
        Comprehensive feeding practices questionnaire: validation of a new measure of parental feeding practices.
        J Pediatr Psychol. 2007; 32: 960-972
        • Van Strien T
        • Oosterveld P.
        The children's DEBQ for assessment of restrained, emotional, and external eating in 7- to 12-year-old children.
        Int J Eat Disord. 2008; 41: 72-81
        • Cracco E
        • Van Durme K
        • Braet C.
        Validation of the FEEL-KJ: an instrument to measure emotion regulation strategies in children and adolescents.
        PLoS One. 2015; 10e0137080
        • Grob A
        • Smolenski C.
        Fragebogen zur Erhebung der Emotionsregulation Bei Kindern und Jugendlichen. FEEL-KJ.
        Huber Hans Verlag, 2005
        • Hayes AF.
        Introduction to Mediation, Moderation, and Conditional Process Analysis Methodology in the Social Sciences.
        Guilford Press, 2018
        • Benjamini Y
        • Hochberg Y.
        Controlling the false discovery rate: a practical and powerful approach to multiple testing.
        J R Stat Soc B. 1995; 57: 289-300
        • McDonald JH.
        Handbook of Biological Statistics.
        3rd ed. Sparky House Publishing, 2014
        • Streiner DL.
        Best (but oft-forgotten) practices: the multiple problems of multiplicity-whether and how to correct for many statistical tests.
        Am J Clin Nutr. 2015; 102: 721-728
        • Emmanuel M
        • Bokor BR
        Tanner Stages.
        StatPearls Publishing, 2022
        • Roelants M
        • Hauspie R
        • Hoppenbrouwers K.
        References for growth and pubertal development from birth to 21 years in Flanders, Belgium.
        Ann Hum Biol. 2009; 36: 680-694
        • Cole TJ
        • Lobstein T.
        Extended international (IOTF) body mass index cut-offs for thinness, overweight and obesity.
        Pediatr Obes. 2012; 7: 284-294
        • Hollingshead AB.
        Four Factor Index of Social Status.
        Yale Journal of Sociology. 1975; (Accessed July 20, 2021)
        • van Strien T.
        Nederlandse vragenlijst voor eetgedrag kind (NVE-K) handleiding. Eating Behaviour Questionnaire. Manual.
        Hogrefe, 2015: 44
        • Jansen PW
        • Roza SJ
        • Jaddoe VW
        • et al.
        Children's eating behavior, feeding practices of parents and weight problems in early childhood: results from the population-based generation R Study.
        Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2012; 9: 130
        • Yee AZH
        • Lwin MO
        • Ho SS.
        The influence of parental practices on child promotive and preventive food consumption behaviors: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2017; 14: 47
        • Shloim N
        • Edelson LR
        • Martin N
        • Hetherington MM.
        Parenting styles, feeding styles, feeding practices, and weight status in 4-12 year-old children: A systematic review of the literature.
        Front Psychol. 2015; 6: 1849
        • Webber L
        • Cooke L
        • Hill C
        • Wardle J.
        Associations between children's appetitive traits and maternal feeding practices.
        J Am Diet Assoc. 2010; 110: 1718-1722
        • Di Pasquale R
        • Rivolta A.
        A conceptual analysis of food parenting practices in the light of self-determination theory: relatedness-enhancing, competence-enhancing and autonomy-enhancing food parenting practices.
        Front Psychol. 2018; 9: 2373
        • Braden A
        • Rhee K
        • Peterson CB
        • Rydell SA
        • Zucker N
        • Boutelle K.
        Associations between child emotional eating and general parenting style, feeding practices, and parent psychopathology.
        Appetite. 2014; 80: 35-40
        • Webb HJ
        • Kerin JL
        • Zimmer-Gembeck MJ.
        Increases in emotional eating during early adolescence and associations with appearance teasing by parents and peers, rejection, victimization, depression, and social anxiety.
        J Early Adolesc. 2021; 41: 754-777
        • Shriver LH
        • Dollar JM
        • Calkins SD
        • Keane SP
        • Shanahan L
        • Wideman L.
        Emotional eating in adolescence: effects of emotion regulation, weight status and negative body image.
        Nutrients. 2020; 13: 79
        • Harrist AW
        • Hubbs-Tait L
        • Topham GL
        • Shriver LH
        • Page MC.
        Emotion regulation is related to children's emotional and external eating.
        J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2013; 34: 557-565
        • Powell EM
        • Frankel LA
        • Hernandez DC.
        The mediating role of child self-regulation of eating in the relationship between parental use of food as a reward and child emotional overeating.
        Appetite. 2017; 113: 78-83
        • Brenning K
        • Soenens B
        • Van Petegem S
        • Vansteenkiste M.
        Perceived maternal autonomy support and early adolescent emotion regulation: a longitudinal study.
        Soc Dev. 2015; 24: 561-578
        • van der Horst K
        • Ferrage A
        • Rytz A.
        Involving children in meal preparation. Effects on food intake.
        Appetite. 2014; 79: 18-24

      Linked Article

      • Advancing Nutrition Education and Behavior
        Journal of Nutrition Education and BehaviorVol. 54Issue 9
        • Preview
          I know this issue highlights some unique advances in nutrition education and behavior research, and I know you will agree with me as you read through this issue! We may know anecdotally that we eat differently when we are stressed or mad or sad. That's where all those comfort foods come in. However, Klosowska et al1 take the anecdotal to the scientific inquiry level for adolescent emotional eating. These authors examined how the parents’ feeding practices and eating behaviors were associated with the adolescents’ emotional eating and emotional regulation.
        • Full-Text
        • PDF