Research Article|Articles in Press

The Impact of ABAWD Time Limit Reinstatement on SNAP Participation and Employment

Published:March 02, 2023DOI:



      Estimate the impact of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) time limit for able-bodied adults without dependents (ABAWD) on SNAP participation, employment, and earnings.


      A quasi-experimental study using state administrative SNAP and earnings data to compare outcomes for SNAP participants before and after the time limit went into effect.


      Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program participants in the study cohorts in Colorado, Missouri, and Pennsylvania (N = 153,599).

      Main Outcome Measures

      Monthly SNAP participation, quarterly employment, annual earnings.


      Logistic and ordinary least squares multivariate regression models.


      Time limit reinstatement reduced SNAP participation by 7 to 32 percentage points in the 12th month of time limit reinstatement but did not generate evidence of improved employment or annual earnings (1 year after time limit reinstatement, employment decreased by 2 to 7 percentage points and annual earnings decreased by $247 to $1,230).

      Conclusions and Implications

      The ABAWD time limit reduced SNAP participation but did not improve employment and earnings. SNAP may provide helpful support to participants as they seek to enter or re-enter employment, and removing this support may be detrimental to their employment prospects. These findings can inform decisions about requesting waivers or pursuing changes to ABAWD legislation or regulations.

      Key Words

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